Back to the home page

A Dictionary of Singlish
and Singapore English

Tell me how much a nation knows about it own
language, and I will tell you how much that
nation knows about its own identity.

— John Ciardi


Last updated on 26 October 2015

The following works were quoted from or consulted in the preparation of the Dictionary.


Works quoted

Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir, Munshi, Hikayat Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir Munshi: Jilid Yang Pertama (Singapore: Methodist Publishing House, 1917)

Ainsworth, Leopold, The Confessions of a Planter in Malaya: A Chronicle of Life and Adventure in the Jungle (London: H.F. & G. Witherby, 1933)

Allen, Betty Molesworth, Some Common Trees of Malaya (2nd ed.) (Singapore: Donald Moore for Eastern Universities Press, 1961)

American Psychiatric Association, Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (2nd ed.) (Washington, American Psychiatric Association, 1968)

American Speech (Baltimore, N.Y., 1925– )

Amis, Kingsley William, Sir, I Like It Here (London: Four Square Books, 1961)

Anderson, Patrick, Snake Wine: A Singapore Episode (London: Chatto & Windus, 1955)

Auden, Wystan Hugh, The Age of Anxiety: A Baroque Eclogue (London: Faber & Faber, 1948) (first published New York: Random House, 1947)

Badings, A.H.L., Nieuw Hollandsch–Maleisch, Maleisch–Hollandsch Woordenboek, etc. (= New Dutch–Malay, Malay–Dutch Dictionary) (Schoonhoven, 1872)

Baidaba, Hikayat Kalilah dan Daminah (Batavia, 18--)

Bailey, L.H. (Liberty Hyde), Cyclopedia of American Horticulture: Comprising Suggestions for Cultivation of Horticultural Plants, Descriptions of the Species of Fruits, Vegetables, Flowers and Ornamental Plants Sold in the United States and Canada, Together with Geographical and Biographical Sketches (Toronto: Virtue, 1900)

Ball, James Dyer, Things Chinese: Being Notes on Various Subjects Connected with China (2nd ed., revised & enlarged) (London: Sampson Low & Co., 1893) (1st ed. published in 1892)

Baron, Samuel, A Description of the Kingdom of Tonqueen in Churchill, Awnsham, & Churchill (John), A Collection of Voyages and Travels, Some Now First Printed from Original Manuscripts. Others Translated out of Foreign Languages, and now first Publish’d in English. To which are Added Some Few that have Formerly Appear’d in English, but do now ... Deserve to be Reprinted. ... (6 vols.) (London: John Walthoe, 1732)

Bridgman, E.C., & Williams, S.W., The Chinese Repository (May 1832 – December 1851)

Bruce, R. (Robert), Cantonese (London: Teach Yourself Books, 1970)

Burkill, I.H. (Isaac Henry), & Mohamed Haniff, Malay Village Medicine (Singapore: Botanic Gardens, 1930) (published as the Gardens’ Bulletin, Straits Settlements, vol. 6, pt. 2, April 1930)

Cameron, John, Our Tropical Possessions in Malayan India: Being a Descriptive Account of Singapore, Penang, Province Wellesley, and Malacca; Their Peoples, Products, Commerce, and Government (London: Smith, Elder & Co, 1865)

The Canton Register (8 November 1827 – 26 December 1837, 21 May 1839; 23 June 1840 – 8 June 1841)

Chao, Buwei Yang, How to Cook and Eat in Chinese (2nd rev. ed.) (London: Faber, 1968)

Charteris, Leslie, The Saint and the People Importers (London: Hodder Paperbacks, 1971)

Chiang, Michael, Army Daze (Singapore: Times Books International, 1985)

Chiang, Micky, Fighting Fit: The Singapore Armed Forces (Singapore: Times Editions, 1990)

China Now (London: Society for Anglo-Chinese Understanding, May 1970 – Winter 1995–1996)

Chong, C.S., NS: An Air-Level Story (Singapore: Times Books International, 1994)

Choo, Martin (managing ed.), The Singapore Armed Forces (Singapore: Public Affairs Dept., Ministry of Defence, 1981)

Choy, Siva; Kelly, Raymond (producer), Why U So Like Dat?, track 1 of Why U So Like Dat? (Singapore: Pony Canyon Singapore Pte. Ltd., 1991) [50-min. sound cassette] (text of lyrics from the blog Offpoint – From Singapore to Seattle posted by Jonathan Poon on 13 April 2005; accessed on 29 April 2006)

Cleo (Singapore: Hopinis Advertising & Pub., 1988–1989; ACP (South-East Asia) Pte Ltd, 1994– )

Clifford, Hugh Charles, & Swettenham (Frank Athalstane), A Dictionary of the Malay Language: Malay–English. A–G (Taiping, Perak: Government Printing Office, 1894–1902) (no further volumes published)

Cornell University, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin of Agricultural Experiment Station (Ithaca, N.Y.: the University, 1888–1965)

The Coxford Singlish Dictionary (Singapore: Angsana Books, 2002)

Craddock, Harry, The Savoy Cocktail Book (London: Constable & Co., 1930)

Crawfurd, John, History of the Indian Archipelago: Containing an Account of the Manners, Arts, Languages, Religions, Institutions, and Commerce of its Inhabitants ... with Maps and Engravings (3 vols.) (Edinburgh: Archibald Constable & Co., 1820)

The Daily News (London & Manchester: Daily News, 1909–1914)

The Daily Telegraph (London, 21 October 1969– ) (previous issues published as The Daily Telegraph & Courier [29 June 1855 – 27 October 1856], The Daily Telegraph [28 October 1856 – 30 September 1937] and The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post [1 October 1937 – 20 October 1969])

Day Lewis, Cecil, Starting Point (London: Jonathan Cape, 1937)

Dennys, N.B. (Nicholas Belfield), A Descriptive Dictionary of British Malaya (London: London and China Telegraph Office, 1894)

Dunlop, Peter K.G., Street Names of Singapore (Singapore: Who’s Who Publishing, 2000)

8 Days: Singapore’s Only Weekly Guide to TV, Radio, Entertainment & The Arts (Singapore: SBC Enterprises, 1990– )

Embury, David Augustus, The Fine Art of Mixing Drinks (1948)

Encyclopædia Britannica (Hugh Chisholm, ed., 11th ed.) (29 vols.) (Cambridge: University Press, 1910–1911)

Encyclopædia Britannica (Warren E. Preece, editor in chief) (23 vols.) (Chicago, Ill.: William Benton, 1968)

Fleming, Ian, Casino Royale (London: Jonathan Cape, 1953)

Forbes, Duncan Charles, The Heart of Malaya (London: Hale, 1966)

Fortune, Robert, Three Years’ Wanderings in the Northern Provinces of China: Including a Visit to the Tea, Silk, and Cotton Countries: With an Account of the Agriculture and Horticulture of the Chinese, New Plants, etc. (London: John Murray, 1847)

Freedman, Maurice, Chinese Family and Marriage in Singapore (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1957) (1st ed., London, 1947 (Colonial Research Studies; no. 20))

Freedman, Maurice, Chinese Lineage and Society: Fukien and Kwangtung (London: Athlone Press; New York, N.Y.: Humanities Press, 1966) (London School of Economics and Political Science. Monographs on social anthropology; no. 33)

Friedman, Bruce Jay, Stern: A Novel (London: André Deutsch, 1963)

Geographical Journal (London: Royal Geographical Society, January 1893– )

Goh, Colin, & Woo Yen Yen (eds.), The Coxford Singlish Dictionary (2nd ed.) (Singapore: Angsana Books, 2009)

Gwee, William Thian Hock, A Baba Malay Dictionary: The First Comprehensive Compendium of Straits Chinese Terms and Expressions (Singapore: Tuttle Publishing, 2006)

Han Suyin (Comber, Elizabeth), A Many-Splendoured Thing (London: Jonathan Cape, 1952)

Hemingway, Ernest, Across the River and into the Trees (London, Jonathan Cape; New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1950)

Hendershot, Vernon E. (Edward), & Shellabear, W.G. (William Girdlestone), A Dictionary of Standard Malay (Malay–English) (Mountain View, Calif.: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1945)

Heywood, John, Iohn Heywoodes Woorkes. A Dialogue Conteyning the Number of the Effectuall Prouerbes in the Englishe Tounge, Compact in a Matter Concernynge Two Maner of Maryages. With One Hundred of Epigrammes: and Three Hundred of Epigrammes vpon Three Hundred Prouerbes: and a Fifth Hundred of Epigrams. Whervnto are now Newly Added a Syxt Hundred of Epigrams by the sayde Iohn Heywood. B.L. (London: Thomas Powell, 1562; Manchester: Spenser Society, 1867)

Hikayat Koris Mengendara Raja Alam (19--) [manuscript, Rare Book Collection, Lee Kong Chian Reference Library, Singapore]

Homes & Gardens (London: IPC Magazines Ltd, 1918(?)– )

Humphreys, Neil, Final Notes from a Great Island: A Farewell Tour of Singapore (Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions, 2006)

Humphreys, Neil, Notes from an Even Smaller Island (Singapore: Times, 2001)

Humphreys, Neil, Scribbles from the Same Island (Singapore: Times, 2003)

Hwang, David Henry, M. Butterfly (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1989)

Irving, John, Royal Navalese: A Glossary of Forecastle and Quarter-Deck Words and Phrases (London: Edward Arnold & Co., 1946)

Kipling, Rudyard, Barrack-Room Ballads and Other Verses (London: Methuen & Co., 1892)

Kitāb Mujarrabāt: al-Dairabī al-musammā bi-Fat(?) al-Malik al-Majīd (Bombay: al-karīmīya(?), 1907)

Koh Boon Pin & Lee Geok Boi, Shoulder to Shoulder: Our National Service Journal: Commemorating 35 Years of National Sevice (Singapore: Ministry of Defence, 2002)

Kok Poh Tin; Keng, Hsuan & Avadhani, P.N.; Foo, Joyce T.S. (ed.), A Guide to Common Vegetables (Singapore: Singapore Science Centre, 1991)

Landy, Eugene E., The Underground Dictionary (London: MacGibbon & Kee, 1972)

[Legge, James], A Lexilogus of the English, Malay, and Chinese Languages; Comprehending the Vernacular Idioms of the Last in the Hok-Keen and Canton Dialects (Malacca: Anglo-Chinese College Press, 1841)

Leong Choon Cheong, Youth in the Army (Singapore: Federal Publications, 1978)

Leong Liew Geok, Women without Men (Singapore: Times Books International, 2000)

Lifestyle (Singapore: NTUC FairPrice Co-operative, 1987– )

Lindley, John, The Vegetable Kingdom; or, the Structure, Classification, and Uses of Plants, Illustrated upon the Natural System ... With ... Illustrations (London, 1846)

Lister, Martin, A Journey to Paris in 1698 (London, 1699)

Logan, J.R. (ed), Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (Singapore: Mission Press, 1847–1862)

Lord, Graham, Marshmallow Pie (London: Macmillan, 1970)

Lovelock, Yann, The Vegetable Book: An Unnatural History (London: Allen and Unwin, 1972)

The Malaysia Message (Singapore, 1891–?)

Manchon, Joseph, Le Slang: Lexique de l’Anglais Familier et Vulgaire, Précédé d’une Étude sur la Prononciation et la Grammaire Populaires (Paris, 1923)

Manning, Frederic, The Middle Parts of Fortune (2 vols.) (London: Piazza Press, 1929)

Marbeck, Joan Margaret,  Ungua Adanza: An Inheritance: An Anthology of Malacca Memories, Poems, Songs, Idiomatic Phrases and Expressions ... [and] a Kristang/English and English/Kristang Dictionary (Melaka: Printed by Loh Printing Press, 1995)

Martineau, Harriet, Society in America ([S.l.]: Saunders and Otley, 1837)

Mayer, L. Th., Een blik in het Javaansche Volksleven (= A View of the Life of Javanese People) (2 vols.) (Leiden, 1897)

Medhurst, Walter Henry, A Dictionary of the Hok-Këèn Dialect of the Chinese Language, according to the Reading and Colloquial Idioms; containing about 12,000 Characters ... Accompanied by a Short Historical and Statistical Account of Hok-Këèn; a Treatise on the Orthography of the ... Dialect, etc. (Macao, Printed at the Honorable East India Company’s Press by G.J. Steyn and Brother, 1832)

The Methodist Message (Singapore: Methodist Church in Singapore, 1952– )

Milburn, William (comp.), Oriental Commerce; Containing a Geographical Description of the Principal Places in the East Indies, China and Japan, with their Produce, Manufactures and Trade ... also the ... Progress of the Trade of the ... European Nations with the Eastern World, particularly that of the English East India Company, etc. (2 vols.) (London, 1813)

Murdoch, Jean Iris, An Unofficial Rose (London: Chatto & Windus, 1962)

The National Geographic Magazine (Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1888– )

National Geographic Traveler (Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1984– )

The New Adventures of Army WOSpecs (Singapore: Ministry of Defence, 2008)

The New Paper (Singapore: Straits Times Press, 1988– )

The New Straits Times (Kuala Lumpur: New Straits Times Press (Malaysia) Berhad, 1 September 1974– )

The New Volumes of the Encyclopædia Britannica, Constituting, in Combination with the Existing Volumes of the Ninth Edition, the Tenth Edition of that Work, etc. (Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace, A.T. Hadley & H. Chisholm, eds.) (vols. 25–35) (Edinburgh & London: A. & C. Black; London: The Times, 1902, 1903)

The New York Times Magazine ([New York, N.Y.]: The New York Times, 1896– )

Newbold, Thomas John, Political and Statistical Account of the British Settlements in the Straits of Malacca, viz., Pinang, Malacca and Singapore (2 vols.) (London, 1839)

Newington, P.C.B., Good Food (Ipoh, Malaysia: Charles Grenier & Co. Ltd., 1947)

News Chronicle (London: Daily News, 1930–1955)

O’Donnell, Edwin P., The Great Big Doorstep: A Delta Comedy (Boston, Mass.: Houghton Miflin Co., 1941)

‘Paik-Choo’ (Toh Paik Choo), Eh, Goondu! (Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, 1982)

‘Paik-Choo’ (Toh Paik Choo), Lagi Goondu! (Singapore: Times Books International, 1986)

Pan, Lynn (gen. ed.), The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas (Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press for the Chinese Heritage Centre, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 1999)

Partridge, Eric, A Dictionary of Forces’ Slang, 1939–45 (London: Secker & Warburg, 1948)

Payn, James, The Canon’s Ward (London: Chatto & Windus, 1884)

Pelampas Akal: Bagi Darjah III Sekolah Melayu (Singapore: Fraser and Neave for the Education Department, Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States, 1924)

Pereira, Michael Nicholas O’Donnell, Pigeon’s Blood (London: Bles, [1970])

Pine, William, The Protectors (London: Constable, 1967)

Pioneer: Singapore Armed Forces News (Singapore: Ministry of Defence, Public Affairs Dept., 1971– )

Planting and Maintenance of Fruit Trees (Singapore: Primary Production Department, Ministry of National Development, 1976)

Porter, Joyce, Dover One (London: Jonathan Cape, 1964)

Purchas, Samuel, the Elder, Purchas his Pilgrimes. In five bookes. The First, Contayning the Voyages ... Made by Ancient Kings, ... and Others, to and Thorow the Remoter Parts of the Knowne World, etc. (London: W. Stansby for H. Fetherstone, 1625)

‘Quiz’, The Grand Master; or, Adventures of Qui Hi? in Hindostan: A Hudibrastic Poem in Eight Cantos (London, 1816)

Raffles, Thomas Stamford (Bingley), The History of Java (2 vols.) (London: Black, Parbury and Allen, 1817)

Reinberg, Linda, In the Field: The Language of the Vietnam War (New York; Oxford: Facts on File, 1991)

Row, William, The Life of Mr. R. B. [Robert Blair]... Containing his Autobiography from 1593 to 1636. With Supplement... and Continuation of the History of the Times to 1680, by... W. Row (Edinburgh: Wodrow Society, 1848)

Russell, William Howard, My Diary in India, in the Year 1858–9 (2 vols.) ([S.l.]: Routledge Warne and Routledge, 1860)

Savage, Victor R., & Yeoh, Brenda S.A., Toponymics: A Study of Singapore Street Names (Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, 2003)

Scott, Edmund, An Exact Discourse of the Subtilties, Fashishions [sic], Pollicies, Religion and Ceremonies of the East Indians, as well Chyneses as Iavans: ... the Manner of Trading with Those People, aswell by us English, as by the Hollanders: as also what hath Happened to the English Nation at Bantan ... since the 2. of February 1602 ... Whereunto is Added a Briefe Description of Iava Maior (London: W. W. for W. Burre, 1606)

Sejarah Melayu or the Malay Annals: Jilid 1–2 (Singapore: Methodist Publishing House with the assistance of the Government of the Federated Malay States, 1915–1930) (edition prepared by W.G. (William Girdlestone) Shellabear; vol. 1 published in 1915, vol. 2 published in 1930)

Shellabear, W.G. (William Girdlestone), Malay–English Vocabulary: Containing over 7000 Malay Words or Phrases with their English Equivalents, together with an Appendix of Household, Nautical and Medical Terms, etc. (2nd ed., revised & enlarged) (Singapore: Methodist Publishing House, 1912) and (3rd ed., revised & enlarged) (Singapore: Methodist Publishing House, 1925)

Shelley, Rex, The Shrimp People (Singapore: Times Books International, 1991)

Sherwood, Mrs. (Mary Martha) (née Butt), The Lady of the Manor: Being a Series of Conversations on the Subject of Confirmation: Intended for the Use of the Middle and Higher Ranks of Young Females (7 vols.) (Wellington: F. Houlston and Son, 1823–1829)

Singapore Academy of Law Journal (Singapore: the Academy, 1989– )

The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (Singapore: Singapore Free Press Ltd. (?), 8 October 1835 – 20 December 1866; 4 October 1884 – 15 February 1933)

The Singapore Free Press (Singapore: Singapore Free Press Ltd., 19 August 1925 28 February 1962)

Singapore Legislative Assembly, Legislative Assembly Debates: Official Report (Singapore: Legislative Assembly, 1946–1965)

Singapore Medical Journal: Journal of the Singapore Medical Association (Singapore: The Association, 1960– )

Singapore Monitor (Singapore: Singapore Monitor, 19821985)

Singapore 1973 (Singapore: Ministry of Culture, 1973)

Singapore Parliament, Parliamentary Debates: Official Report (Singapore: Government Printer, 1965– )

Singapore Tourist Promotion Board, Carry Singapore in Your Pocket (3rd ed.) (Singapore: The Board, 1971)

Skeat, Walter William, Malay Magic: Being an Introduction to the Folklore and Popular Religion of the Malay Peninsula (London: Macmillan, 1900)

The Star (Kuala Lumpur: Star Publications, 1979– )

Steinmetz, Andrew, Japan and Her People... With Numerous Illustrations (London, 1859)

The Straits Times (Singapore: Straits Times Press, 1845– )

Straits Times Weekly Issue (Singapore: Straits Times Press, 18681893)

Streats (Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings, 2003–2004)

Sulaiman bin Muhammad Nur, Kitab Gemala Hikmat (Singapore: Methodist Publishing House with the assistance of the Government of the Federated Malay States, 1906)

The Sunday Times (Singapore: Straits Times Press, 1932– )

Sydney, Richard John Hamilton, In British Malaya To-Day, etc. (London: Hutchinson & Co., [1927])

Theroux, Paul, Saint Jack (London: Bodley Head, 1973)

Thomas, Ross, The Singapore Wink (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1969)

Thompson, Homer Columbus, Vegetable Crops (2nd ed.) (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1931)

Thumboo, Edwin, Ulysses by the Merlion (Singapore: Heinemann Educational Books, 1979)

Today and Weekend Today (Singapore: Mediacorp Press, 2002– )

Today on Sunday (Singapore: Mediacorp Press, 2011– )

Toh Paik Choo, On the Buses (Singapore: Landmark Books, 1987)

Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (Philadelphia, Pa.: W. & T. Bradford, 1771– )

Updike, John, Couples (London: André Deutsch, 1968)

Wallace, Alfred Russel, The Malay Archipelago: the Land of the Orang-Utan and the Bird of Paradise: A Narrative of Travel, with Studies of Man and Nature (2 vols.) (London, Macmillan, 1869)

Wallaschek, Richard P., Primitive Music: An Inquiry into the Origin and Development of Music, Songs, Instruments, Dances, and Pantomimes of Savage Tribes ... With Musical Examples (London: Longmans & Co., 1893)

Washington Post (6 December 1877– )

Watson, J.G., Malayan Plant Names (Singapore, 1928) (Malayan Forest Records; no. 5)

Wee, Dennis, with Fong, Sylvia, Making Luck with Your Hands (Singapore: Noel B. Caros Productions, 2000)

Wells, H. G. (Herbert George), Love and Mr. Lewisham (London & New York: Harper & Bros., 1900)

Westminster Gazette (London, 31 January 1893 – 31 January 1928)

What Cellphone? (London: WV Publications, 1994–1997)

Wilkinson, R.J. (Richard James), A Malay–English Dictionary (Romanised) (2 vols.) (London: Macmillan, 1955)

Williams, Samuel Wells, A Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese Language, Arranged According to the Wu-fang Yuen Yin, with the Pronunciation of the Characters as heard in Peking, Canton, Amoy and Shanghai (Shanghai, 1874)

Willis, Alfred Charles, Willis’s Singapore Guide (Singapore: A. C. Willis, 1936)

Winstedt, R.O. (Richard Olaf), & Sturrock, A.J. (John) (eds.), Cherita Jenaka: ya-itu Pa Kadok, Pa Pandir, Lebai Malang, Pa Belalang, Si Lunchai (Singapore: Methodist Publishing House with the assistance of the Government of the Federated Malay States, 1908)

Winstedt, Richard Olaf, Sir, The Malays: A Cultural History (Singapore: Kelly & Walsh, 1947)

Winstedt, Sir Richard (Olaf), An Unabridged Malay–English Dictionary (5th ed., enlarged) (Kuala Lumpur: Marican & Sons, 1963)

Winterbotham, William, An Historical, Geographical, and Philosophical View of the Chinese Empire ... to which is Added a Copious Account of Lord Macartney’s Embassy, Compiled from Original Communications (2 pts.) (London, 1795)

Wise, Michael, with Wise, Mun Him (comp.), Travellers’ Tales of Old Singapore (Singapore: Times Books International, 1985)


Works consulted

Barua, Hem Chandra, The Assamese–English Dictionary: Hem-Kosha, Etymological Assamese Words and Idiomatical Phrases done into English (4th ed., enlarged) (Sibsagar, Assam: Hem Chandra Library, 1965) [Barua]

Baxter, Alan N., & de Silva, Patrick, A Dictionary of Kristang (Malacca Creole Portuguese) with an English–Kristang Finderlist (Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, 2004) (Pacific Linguistics; 564) [Baxter & de Silva]

Bronson, M. (Miles), A Dictionary in Assamese and English (Sibsagor, Assam: American Baptist Mission Press, 1867) [Bronson]

Brown, Adam, Making Sense of Singapore English (Singapore: Federal Publications, 1992)

Brown, Charles Philip, A Telugu–English Dictionary (2nd new ed., thoroughly revised and brought up to date) (Madras: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1903) (new ed. by M. (Malladi) Venkata Ratnam, W.H. (William Howard) Campbell and Rao Bahadur K. (Kandukūri) Veerasalingam Pantulu Garu) (reprinted New Delhi: Asian Educational Service, 1980) [Brown]

Brown, Lesley (ed.), The New Shorter Oxford Dictionary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993)

Burrow, T., & Emeneau, M.B., A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961) [Burrow & Emeneau]

Chalihā, Devesvara (chief ed.), Chandrakanta Abhidhan: A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Assamese Language with Etymology and Illustrations of Words with their Meanings both in Assamese and English (Jorhat, 1932) [Chan. Abhid.]

The Coxford Singlish Dictionary (Singapore: Angsana Books, 2002)

Diccionario Actual de la Lengua Española (= Current Dictionary of the Spanish Language) (Barcelona: Vox, 1994) [Diccionario Española]

Dicionário de Inglês–Português (= English–Portuguese Dictionary) (3rd ed.) (Porto: Porta Editora, 1998)

Dicionário de Português–Inglês (= Portuguese–English Dictionary) (2nd ed.) (Porto: Porta Editora, 1998)

Echols, John M., & Shadily, Hassan, An English–Indonesian Dictionary (Ithaca, N.Y.; London: Cornell University Press, 1975) [Echols & Shadily, Eng.–Ind.]

Echols, John M., & Shadily, Hassan, An Indonesian–English Dictionary (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1961) [Echols & Shadily, Ind.–Eng.]

Eitel, Ernest John, A Chinese–English Dictionary in the Cantonese Dialect (2nd ed., revised & enlarged by Immanuel Gottlieb Genähr) (2 vols.) (Hong Kong: Kelly & Walsh, 1910–1911) (reprinted London: Ganesha, 2001 (Western Linguists and the Languages of China; vols. 4–5)) [Eitel]

English Language Department, Beijing Institute of Foreign Languages, A Chinese–English Dictionary (Wú Jĭngróng, chief ed.) (Beijing: Commercial Press, 1978) (北京外国语学院英语系, 《汉英词典》 (吴景荣, 主编) (北京: 商务印刷馆, 1978)) [Chi.–Eng. Dict.]

Ferozsons Urdu–English Dictionary (6th ed.) (Karachi: Ferozsons, 1968) [Ferozsons]

Giles, Herbert A., A Chinese–English Dictionary (2nd ed., revised & enlarged) (2 vols.) (Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1912) [Giles]

Gundert, H. (Hermann), A Malayalam and English Dictionary (Mangalore: Basel Mission Book & Tract Society, 1872) [Gundert]

Gwee, William Thian Hock, A Baba Malay Dictionary: The First Comprehensive Compendium of Straits Chinese Terms and Expressions (Singapore: Tuttle Publishing, 2006) [Gwee]

Headley, Robert K. (Kirk), Jr., et al., Cambodian–English Dictionary (2 vols.) (Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1977) (Publications in the languages of Asia; 3) [Headley]

Horne, Elinor Clark (comp.), Javanese–English Dictionary (London; New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1974) [Horne]

Johnson, Francis, A Dictionary, Persian, Arabic, and English (London: Wm. H. Allen and Co. under the patronage of the Honourable East-India Company, 1852) [Johnson]

Kittel, F. (Ferdinand), A Kannada–English Dictionary (Mangalore: Basel Mission Book & Tract Depository, 1894) (reprinted New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1982) [Kittel]

Landau, Sidney I., Dictionaries: The Art and Craft of Lexicography (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984 (1996 printing))

Lee Su Kim, Manglish (Singapore: Times Books International, 1998)

林伦伦 (主编), 《新编潮州音字典》 (汕头: 汕头大学出版社, 1997) (Lín Lúnlún (chief ed.), A Newly-Edited Dictionary in the Cháozhōu Accent (Shantou: Shantou University Press, 1997) [Chaozhou Dict.]

Lin Yutang, Lin Yutang’s Chinese–English Dictionary of Modern Usage (Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1972) [Lin]

McFarland, George Bradley, Thai–English Dictionary (2nd ed.) (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press; London: Humphrey Milford; Oxford University Press, 1944) [McFarland]

MacGowan, J[ohn], English and Chinese Dictionary of the Amoy Dialect (Amoy, China: A. A. Marcal; London: Trubner & Co., 1883) [MacGowan]

McGregor, R.S. (ed), The Oxford Hindi–English Dictionary (Delhi; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993) [McGregor]

MacIver, D. (Donald), rev. by Mackenzie, M.C., A Chinese–English Dictionary: Hakka-Dialect as Spoken in Kwang-Tung Province: Revised and Rearranged with Many Additional Terms and Phrases (Shanghai: Presbyterian Mission Press, 1926) (reprinted Taipei: SMC Publishing, 1991) [MacIver]

Malayalam Lexicon: A Comprehensive Malayalam–Malayalam–English Dictionary on Historical and Philological Principles (7 vols.) ([Trivandrum]: University of Kerala, 1965– ) (vols. 1–2 edited by Suranad Kunjan Pillai, vol. 3 by K.V. Nambudiripad, vols. 4–6 by B.C. Balakrishnan, vol. 7 by P. Somasekharan Nair) [Mlm. Lex.]

Martin, W., & Tops, G.A.J., Van Dale Groot Woordenboek: Nederlands–Engels (= Van Dale Great Dictionary: Dutch–English) (Utrecht; Antwerp: Van Dale Lexicografie, 1986) [Martin & Tops]

Mathews, R.H., Mathews’ Chinese–English Dictionary (rev American ed) (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1943 (1972 printing)) (based on A Chinese–English Dictionary Compiled for the China Inland Mission (Shanghai: China Inland Mission and Presbyterian Mission Press, 1931)) [Mathews]

Medhurst, Walter Henry, A Dictionary of the Hok-Këèn Dialect of the Chinese Language, According to the Reading and Colloquial Idioms: Containing About 12,000 Characters... Accompanied by a Short Historical and Statistical Account of Hok-Këèn; A Treatise on the Orthography of the... Dialect, etc. (Macao, 1832) [Medhurst]

Michaelis, H., Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa e Inglesa (= A New Dictionary of the Portuguese and English Languages) (2 vols.) (New York: Frederick Unger, 1945) [Michaelis]

Monier-Williams, Monier, A Sanskrit–English Dictionary: Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Greek, Latin, Gothic, German, Anglo-Saxon and Other Cognate Indo-European Languages (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1872) [Monier-Williams]

National Museum of Singapore, Singapore Living Gallery: Food. (visited December 2006) <> [NMS]

Nigg, Charles, A Tagalog English and English Tagalog Dictionary (Manila: Charles Nigg, 1904) [Nigg]

OED Online (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993– ) <> [OED]

Pallegoix, D.J.B., Dictionarium Linguæ Thai sive Siamensis Interpretatione Latina, Gallica et Anglica (Paris, 1854) (reprinted Bangkok, 1999) [Pallegoix]

Palmer, E.H., A Concise Dictionary of the Persian Language (London: Trübner & Co., 1876) [Palmer]

The Panjabi Dictionary (Lahore: Mufid-i-’Am Press, 1972) [Panj. Dict.]

Partridge, Eric, The Gentle Art of Lexicography: As Pursued and Experienced by an Addict (London: Andre Deutsch, 1963)

Percival, Peter, Anglo Telugu Dictionary, with the Telugu Words Printed in the Roman, as well as in the Telugu Characters (Madras: Public Instruction Press, 1862) [Percival, Tel. Dict.]

Percival, P. (Peter), Tamil–English Dictionary, with the Tamil Words Printed in the Roman as well as in the Tamil Character (Madras: Public Instruction Press, 1861) [Percival, Tam. Dict.]

Raker, Joseph W., & Rama Shankar Shukla (eds. & comps.), Star English–Hindi, Hindi–English Dictionary (New Delhi: Star Publishers (P) Ltd, 1995)

Ridhwan, Anwar (ed.), Kamus Daya (Selangor, Malaysia: Penerbitan Minda, 2008)

Robinson, Stuart, & Wibisono, Singgih, Javanese English Dictionary (Hong Kong: Periplus, 2002)

Scully, Valerie, & Zuzarte, Catherine, The Most Comprehensive Eurasian Heritage Dictionary: Kristang–English/English–Kristang (Singapore: SNP International, 2004) [Scully & Zuzarte]

Spiro, Socrates, An Arabic–English Dictionary of the Colloquial Arabic of Egypt: Containing the Vernacular Idioms and Expressions, Slang Phrases, Vocables, etc., Used by the Native Egyptians (Beirut: Librarie du Libran, 1973) [Spiro]

The Student’s Practical Dictionary Containing Hindustani Words with English Meanings in Persian Character (4th ed., rev.) (Allahabad: Ram Narain Lal, 1916)

Tamil Lexicon (6 vols.) (Madras: University of Madras, 1924–1936 (1982 printing)) [Tam. Lex.]

Times Chinese–English Dictionary (Singapore: Federal Publications and the Commercial Press (Hong Kong), 1980 (1999 printing))

Upadhyaya, U.P. (ed.), Tulu Lexicon: Tulu–Kannada–English Dictionary (6 vols.) (Udupi, Karnataka: Rashtrakavi Govinda Pai Research Centre, MGM College, 1988) [Tulu Lex.]

Usha Rani d/o Muthu Kumar, Singapore Armed Forces Slang: Current Use (1987) (unpublished academic exercise, Department of English Language & Literature, Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences, National University of Singapore, archived at the National University of Singapore Central Library thesis collection) [call number PR13 *1988 48]

Wehr, Hans (Cowan, J. Milton, ed.), A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (3rd ed.) (London: Harrap (etc.), 1976) [Wehr]

Wilkinson, R.J. (Richard James), A Malay–English Dictionary (Romanised) (2 vols.) (London: Macmillan, 1955) [Wilkinson]

Winstedt, Sir Richard (Olaf), An Unabridged Malay–English Dictionary (5th ed., enlarged) (Kuala Lumpur: Marican & Sons, 1963) [Winstedt]

Wú Guānghuá (chief ed.), A Comprehensive Chinese–English Dictionary (3 vols.) (Dalian: Dalian University of Technology Press, 2004) (吴光华 (主编),《汉英综合大辞典》(大连: 大连理工大学出版社, 2004)) [Comp. Chi.–Eng. Dict.]

Zgusta, Ladislav (ed.), Theory and Method in Lexicography: Western and Non-Western Perspectives (Columbia, S. Ca.: Hornbeam Press, 1980)

horizontal rule

Back to the home page   Back to the top